Enhanced Interferometric Identification of Spectra in Habitable Extrasolar Planets

 

Eyal Schwartz, Stephen G. Lipson, and Erez N. Ribak

2012 The Astronomical Journal 144 71 doi:10.1088/0004-6256/144/3/71

Abstract

An Earth-like extrasolar planet emits light that is many orders of magnitude fainter than that of the parent star. We propose a method of identifying bio-signature spectral lines in light of known extrasolar planets based on Fourier spectroscopy in the infrared, using an off-center part of a Fourier interferogram only. This results in superior sensitivity to narrower molecular-type spectral bands, which are expected in the planet spectrum but are absent in the parent star. We support this idea by numerical simulations that include photon and thermal noise, and show it to be feasible at a luminosity ratio of 10–6 for a Sun-like parent star in the infrared. We also carried out a laboratory experiment to illustrate the method. The results suggest that this method should be applicable to real planet searches.